When reading the fragments of Heraclitus, we are reading what a dozen people a long time ago said Heraclitus said a long time ago. We are reaching back two thousand, five hundred years. We are also listening to words that have lived and flourished in very different civilisations, religions, and eras.
Sources for the fragments include Aristotle, Plato, Theophrastus, Polybius, Plutarch, Clement of Alexandria, Plotinus and Albertus Magnus. They all understood Heraclitus in their own ways, sometimes as contrast to and sometimes as confirmation of their own thinking. But what did “logos,” for example, mean to the translators into Arabic? They seem to have understood it as “language,” making it the basis for a new word in their own language, lughat. And what happened to the word six hundred years later when it got to John 1:1?........ Download the full article in pdf attachment (below)